Internet – history until 2000
This is an article I wrote in 2000. It is published in several places on the Web, but I take it here since I now have a website.
There are many versions of the Internet's history. This summary is based on Web pages written by those who did the job.
Internet was developed within the research programs managed by ARPA - Advanced Reasearch Project Agency, funded by the U.S. Department of Defense. The research has been open, conducted by American universities and research where the results have been publicly published. ARPANET was established in 1969 and was the first network in what later became the Internet. The first Internet communication through several networks across the Atlantic was demonstrated in 1977. CERN launches the World Wide Web in 1991 and the development of the American research network NSFNET 1986-1995 is the main reason for the prevalence of Iternett.
The main people behind the Internet is R. E. Kahn, ARPA, and Vincent G. Deer, Stanford, defining TCP / IP – communication protocol that forms the foundation of the Internet, and the Englishman Tim Berners-Lee, CERN, as oppfant World Wide Web, including. HTML, http and URL.
The main features of the development
60-years: Research within this pakkesvtsjede. Creation of ARPANET.
70-years: Research on Internet stuff. Development of TCP / IP. Establishment of the Internet.
80-years: The academic world (universities and research) taking into use the Internet.
90-years: The rest of the world in use Internet.
Milepæler i Internetts historie
1962: The vision of a “intergalactic network” – a worldwide network of computers where everyone could quickly access data and applications is any place – was created by JCR. Licklider, Chairman of the Information Processing Techniques Office at ARPA.
1967: Plan for the ARPANET was published.
1968: ARPA's program plan for the ARPANET, called “Resource Sharing Computer Networks” Established. Contracts were awarded to some researchers as the first ARPANET sites are needed to establish ARPANET.
1969: Communication between the first four nodes on the ARPANET was established University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Stanford Research Institute (SRI), University of California Santa Barbara and University of Utah. Remote login (Telnet) was first used.
1972: Electronic mail was introduced on the ARPANET. the @ symbol was introduced as the "that" in the e-mail addresses.
1972: ARPA start the program Internetting. The need to connect multiple networks based on different technology (Telecommunications, radio, satellite) created a need for an overlay network architecture "open-architecture networking". The development of TCP / IP was started.
1973: First international connections to ARPANET: NORSAR in Norway and the University College of London. The connection went via satellite. NORSAR had already 1970 seismic data transmitted via satellite to the U.S., and was commissioned to establish the first international connections to ARPANET. More Norwegian researchers eventually linked to this compound.
1973: The first version of TCP / IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocoll) was defined by R. E. Kahn, ARPA and V. G. Deer, Stanford . This is the basic protocols in today's Internet. It was specified with 32 bit addresses that are still current - a headache today with the Internet's vast distribution.
1977: The first demonstration of the triple network Internet based on TCP / IP. Communication over the ARPANET, SATNET (satellite) and Mobile Packet Radio Network was demonstrated. Communication from a car at the San Francisco Bayshore Freeway went over Packet Radio Network to BBN, further over the ARPANET to London with satellite link to Norway (NORSAR) and wired to London. Then continue over SATNET (Atlantic Packet Satellite Network) to the ARPANET in the U.S. and the ARPANET to the USC Information Sciences Institute. Not a bit was lost! Implementation was carried out by Stanford, BBN and University College London.
1979: ARPA establishes the Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB).
1980: TCP / IP was adopted as the standard for U.S. military.
1982: Norway will be connected to the Internet.
1982: BARLEY sponset the University of Berkley for å Legge TCP / IP, UNIX variant course inn i. Berkeley UNIX was widely used at several universities in the U.S., and made it easy to put into use TCP / IP.
1983: ARPANET, as 113 universities and research was then connected, was converted from the original Protocol NCP to TCP/IP. This was carefully planned over several years. ARPANET split into ARPANET and Milner (forsvarsrelatert forskingsnett).
1984: Pound Janet decided to use the TCP / IP in the research network that would cover all higher education institutions in the UK. This was an important milestone for distribution in Europe.
1984: Domain Name System (DNS) introduced. DNS is a distributed Internet directory service that translates domain names into IP addresses.
1985: U.S.. National Science Foundation (NSF) decided to use the TCP / IP in the NSFNET, which should cover all higher education institutions in the U.S..
1986-1995: $200 million was spent for development of the NSFNET. A number of other countries linked to the NSFNET gradually as the backbone of the Internet. Also commercial activities associated with permitted.
1988: First Interop exhibition was held. 50 companies showed that their products could play together using. TCP / IP. This was an important milestone for the commercial distribution of Internet.
1990: ARPANET claims. Most nodes are moved to the NSFNET.
1990: First commercial Internet access provider (world.std.com). Offers dial-up connection to the Internet.
1991: World Wide Web is launched by the Englishman Tim Berners-Lee, CERN (the European laboratory for particle physics). HTML (HyperText Mockup Language), HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and URL (Universal Resource Locator) was defined and developed a web browser. The dream behind the Web was to create a global information spaces on the Internet where hypertext links make it easy to find information anywhere on the Web. HTML was based on SGML and intended to define the structure in the form of chapters, sub-chapters and paragraphs. It was up to the individual browser to choose how it should be presented. It quickly developed browsers in several research.
1992: The web browser Mosaic was developed by Marc Andresen and Eric Bina at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign that. This was the most popular browser. Most commercial browsers (including the Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator) is based on NCSA Mosaic. This is why many think the Web was invented by NCSA.
1993: Mosaic takes the Internet by storm; Web traffic increases with 341 000% in one year.
1993: Internet Talk Radio begins broadcasting.
1994: Netscape Launches Navigator, the first commercial Web browser.
1994: The first stores are on the Web.
1994: First Virtual, the first Internet bank, open.
1994: World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) formed. This is an open forum where companies and organizations come together to agree on new standards for the Web. W3C is led by Tim Berners-Lee, oppfinneren av World Wide Web.
1995: NSFNET goes back to being a pure research network. Commercial Internet traffic is taken over by the connected network providers.
1995: Sun launches JAVA. Java is a general purpose programming language that is completely hardware independent and designed for use over the Internet. Java makes it possible to develop applications that can be downloaded from the Internet and run on any machine regardless of operating system. JAVA applications often run from a browser.
1995: Microsoft launches Internet Explorer.
1996: Net technologies: Search Engines, JAVA, Internet Phone.
Emerging technologies: Virtual environments (VRML), Collaborative tools, Internet appliance (Network Computer)
1997: Net technologies: Push, Multicasting
Emerging technologies: Streaming Media
1998: Net technologies: E-Commerce, E-Auctions, Portals
Progressive Technologies: E-Trade, XML, Intrusion Detection
1999: Net technologies: E-Trade, Online Banking, MP3
Emerging technologies: Net-Cell Phones, Thin Computing, Embedded Computing
2000: Net technologies: ASP, NAPSTER?, IPV6?
Web estimated at one billion. web pages.
Stig Ulfsby 06/09/00
The sources can be found on the web pages of the Internett Societys